COP-26 Conference Outcomes – An Analysis
The much-discussed COP-26 conference is over. The conference was scheduled to take place in Glasgow, Scotland, from October 31 to November 12, but the duration was extended by one day as there had been no consensus within the deadline. In addition, the next COP 2022 and 2023 conferences will be held in Egypt and the United Arab Emirates respectively. The main objective of the UN at the COP-26 conference was to halve carbon emissions by 2030, which would require a 45% reduction in carbon emissions. In addition, by 2050, emissions will have to be reduced to zero percent. The second objective of the UN at the conference was to increase aid to the poorest countries in the climate crisis, so that they can adapt and spend money to deal with the damage caused by the climate. climate change.
Climate experts claim that global temperatures have risen by 0.5 degrees Celsius over the past few decades to reach 1.1 degrees Celsius. For this reason, various natural disasters, including floods, tidal waves, cyclones and fires, have increased abnormally. The United Nations has said that if the current rate of carbon emissions continues, temperatures will reach 2.7 degrees Celsius. The increase in the use of fossil fuels is 100% responsible for this, said the associate director of the University of Oxford.
Climate change was pledged $ 100 billion a year in 2009. It has been said that this aid will be effective by 2020. However, it has again been postponed to 2023, but this promise is not fully kept. . As a result, the poorest countries affected by climate change are the hardest hit. The UN’s IPCC says $ 100 billion in compensation per year will not benefit poor countries affected by climate change. It will now take a trillion dollars a year to meet their losses.
If the temperature rises by two degrees Celsius, it will cost billions of dollars every year in Africa alone. The IPCC also asserts that spending $ 1.8 trillion over the next decade in sectors such as infrastructure, agriculture and mangrove conservation to tackle the climate crisis would prevent losses of $ 7.2 trillion. On the other hand, scientists say that if strict climate policies are not implemented now, 200 million people a year will need new humanitarian aid by 2050. Which is twice as much as that. today.
However, three consecutive agreements were drafted at COP-26, due to disagreements on how to reduce atmospheric altitude. Finally, under pressure from China and India, the word ‘phase down’ was added in place of ‘phase out’ in the agreement on the use of coal. More than 200 countries have entered into an agreement called the Glasgow Climate Pact, which aims to increase compensation for the climate crisis by 2025 and update each country’s NDCs every year. Now it will take a long time for UN member states to sign. It is difficult to say now how many countries will sign in the end.
Meanwhile, the pros and cons of the deal are being discussed around the world. In it, most negotiators expressed a negative attitude, especially people and environmentalists from least developed and developing countries. Young people called the conference “greenwash”. The chairman of the conference, British Minister Alok Sharma, said: “A fragile victory. According to the UN president, the agreement only targets a temperature of 1.5 degrees Celsius. “It is an important step, but not sufficient,” he said. “This is a big step,” said Boris Johnson, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. US Climate Ambassador John Kerry said Paris created the ground and Glasgow’s race started from there.
According to experts, the decision taken at the Glasgow conference, if properly implemented, will prevent the rise in atmospheric altitude even if it does not decrease to the desired level, which is good for the world. But there is no guarantee that the agreement will be fully implemented, as evidenced by the Paris Agreement. The agreement has not been fully implemented. As a result, the world must pay its ultimate compensation. The same could be said of the Glasgow Accord. Needless to say, the deal is a beacon of hope, on the basis of which we can move forward.
In addition to the COP-26 agreement, there are a number of commitments to reduce carbon emissions by 2030. Such as: stop using coal, protect forests, reduce methane, build systems for climate-tolerant, low-carbon health, stop building vehicle systems, net zero, etc. In addition, Scotland has launched funding ($ 1.4 million) to fund climate change issues. The biggest surprise of the COP-26 conference is the announcement by the United States and China to work together to address the climate crisis.
The unexpected announcement said the two countries would work together to keep the increase in atmospheric temperature below 1.5 degrees Celsius during this decade. The United Nations and the European Union have called the announcement “a very urgent and encouraging step.” Then there are India, Russia and the EU. Now, if they join the Sino-US initiative, carbon emissions will be much lower.
In addition, 190 countries and organizations have pledged to stop using coal. Many countries and organizations have announced that they will stop funding the coal sector. If this promise is implemented, the amount of carbon emissions will be significantly reduced. It is therefore conceivable that the rest of the world will follow suit. And if this is the case, then the great sacrifice of renewable energies will begin all over the world. The use of nuclear power to meet the demand for electricity will also increase significantly. 124 countries have pledged to stop deforestation.
One of the ways to save the planet is to get the necessary forest cover and 25% forest cover, which all countries must create, and it must be made from fruits, herbs and forests. Planting fruit trees will meet nutritional needs. In addition, the demand for wood for furniture will also be satisfied. In addition, if medicinal plants are planted, the demand for drugs will be met. Therefore, in the case of tree planting, all of these should matter. Tall and strong trees to cope with storms, floods, tidal waves and salinity should be planted in coastal areas and drought tolerant trees should be planted in desert areas. With this, comprehensive measures must be taken to protect the forest. Otherwise, forest hunters will destroy the forest as it is now if they get the chance.
There will be huge jobs in the creation of forests. Social forests are very useful in reducing poverty. Therefore, it is the responsibility of government and society as well as the individual to create and protect the necessary forests in a planned manner. In collaboration with the World Health Organization, 50 countries have committed to building climate-tolerant and low-carbon health systems. If it is implemented, people will benefit a lot. 90 countries have pledged to provide private finance to achieve net zero. If implemented, the environment will improve a lot.
At the COP-26 conference, hundreds of countries pledged to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 30% by 2030. He did not specify how this would be done. Agriculture is responsible for 12% of global greenhouse gas emissions, mainly from methane, according to a recent research report. Agriculture and livestock together produce around 40% of methane. Cows emit the most methane among cattle. A cow releases about 220 pounds of methane per year. According to the United Nations, the tendency to consume beef and milk will increase by 70% in the coming years. The number of cows will also increase.
As a result, methane will be emitted at a proportional rate. Global warming will therefore increase further, but there is no reason to worry. Indeed, Jelp in the UK and Cargill in the US have created a special cow mask to protect cows from methane. Although similar to a mask, it is actually a device that is attached to the nose of the cow. The device filters the methane emitted by a special process and converts it into carbon dioxide.
So now we have to make arrangements for all the cows to wear masks. Then the amount of methane gas will decrease. Experts talk about changing diets to reduce carbon emissions. Each year, 14.5% of greenhouse gases in the world are emitted for animal feed. Scientists believe that it is possible to reduce the level of carbon in the atmosphere by increasing the rate at which carbon is stored on the ocean floor.
According to the British government, at the COP-26 summit, six of the world’s leading car manufacturers (Volvo, Ford Motors, General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, BYD and Land Rover) announced that they would stop manufacturing fuel-powered vehicles. fossil in 2040. This did not include Toyota, Volkswagen AG, Stellantis, Honda, Nissan, BMW and Hyundai. But there is no way to make the world carbon free without their involvement. Because, various countries have already banned the use of gasoline vehicles. By 2030, most countries will do the same. According to the IAA, the transport sector is responsible for 25% of global carbon emissions.
Road vehicles are the main culprits. Bill Gates, in an article published based on his experience attending the COP-26 conference and the issues surrounding it, said that by 2050 the world will have to emit zero carbon. Achieving this will require a green industrial revolution, where we will decarbonize virtually the entire physical economy. This will include making things, producing electricity, getting around, producing food and heating and cooling buildings. However, this will require significant innovation. Emphasis should be placed on the innovation of environmentally friendly technologies.
However, the earth must be saved. Man, fauna and biodiversity must be protected. Therefore, the agreements and commitments of the COP-26 conference must be fully implemented to limit the altitude of the atmosphere to 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2030. It is the responsibility of all peoples and countries. of the world. However, the greatest responsibility lies with the rich. Because they have the main responsibility to increase the height of the atmosphere. They emit 30 times more carbon emissions than the poor. They therefore have a greater responsibility in reducing carbon emissions. The rich must help 134 poor and developing countries implement the Green Revolution, because they cannot afford it.
The main responsibility in this case lies with the World Bank, the IMF and the international financial institutions. Otherwise, the countries’ green revolution will not succeed. As a result, the loss of carbon emissions will continue. Needless to say, it should not be based solely on the rich countries. Poor and developing countries should also do their best.